When assessing risk in emerging markets, rating agencies used to apply the theory of the sovereign ceiling. This report highlights the reason behind the rating agencies dropping this theory. Furthermore, it shows why investing in local companies at times is less risky than investing in the sovereign.
In the last few years Sub-Sahara Africa has experienced the strongest economic growth in more than thirty years. This report explains how the so-called HIPC debt relief initiative has contributed to this reversal of economic fortunes. While the debt relief itself was useful, it is the conditions that were attached that made the real difference.
The European Union has made strengthening social cohesion a clear priority and the European co-operative banks also focus considerable attention on the topic.
In the wake of a series of corporate scandals at Enron, Worldcom, Parmalat and Ahold, the drive to modernise corporate governance and corporate law has accelerated worldwide. The United States is bringing considerable pressure to bear internationally in order to bring this about.
The emphasis in this study lies on retail banking in the broadest sense of the word. We start with a brief summary of well-known trends in banking and then focus on domestic and international banking strategies, respectively.